Psychiatr. Pol. 2015; 49(2): 391–401
Maria Morzycka-Markowska, Ewa Drozdowicz, Tadeusz Nasierowski
FREE POLISH FULLTEXT:
Deinstytucjonalizacja psychiatrii włoskiej – przebieg i skutki. Część I. Przebieg deinstytucjonalizacji – działalność grupy Basaglii
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT:
Deinstitutionalization in Italian psychiatry – the course and consequences. Part I. The course of deinstitutionalization – the activity of Basaglia’s group
Psychiatric reform in Italy consisted of the implementation of legislative changes derived from anti-institutional experiments conducted by Franco Basaglia and his group in the 60’s and 70’s of the 20th century. The activity of Basaglia’s group was an integral part of the European reform movement of that time, which profited from the economic, cultural and political prosperity for changes in psychiatry. Italian antipsychiatry has led to the most radical experiment in deinstitutionalization in history. It involved the whole public sector of psychiatry and across a quarter-century resulted in a grand social debate on the situation of the mentally ill and the need for systemic change of their treatment and care. Inspired mainly by phenomenological analysis, Basaglia opted for close emphatic contact with the mentally ill. While the British, French and American anti-psychiatrists contested the psychiatric care system as such, the Italian radicals made an approach to disassemble it from the inside and successfully gained social support for the process of deinstitutionalization. Basaglia promoted his ideas across Europe, including the World Health Organization (WHO) forum.