The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A): an important tool to study affective temperaments.
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Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych UM w Poznaniu
Uniwersytet Medyczny w Poznaniu
Daria Dembińska-Krajewska   

Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych UM w Poznaniu, ul. Szpitalna 27, 60-572 Poznań, Polska
Submission date: 2013-12-02
Final revision date: 2013-12-18
Acceptance date: 2013-12-18
Publication date: 2014-04-20
Psychiatr Pol 2014;48(2):261–276
The aim of the paper is to describe the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) constructed by prominent researchers of affective disorders, under the direction of Hagop Akiskal, and functioning in full version since 2005. The article refers to the definitions of temperament, including the concept of affective temperament, related to the area of emotionality and conceptualized as the endophenotype of affective disorders. Based on clinical observations, initially four types of temperament had been delineated: hiperthymic, depressed, irritable and cyclothymic, and, subsequently, the anxious temperament was added. Full version of the scale contains 110 items for the five types of temperament, which were discussed in detail. The TEMPS-A has been translated into 32 languages and its verification was performed in many countries, including Poland. The scale has been widely used in epidemiological and clinical studies in general population, in patients with affective disorders, and in other diseases. In affective disorders, different types of temperament show, among others, a relationship to the type and symptomatology of bipolar disorder as well as to a predisposition to suicidal behavior. In Poznań centre, an association between several dimensions of temperament of the TEMPS-A, and prophylacic efficacy of lithium has been shown. Different types of temperament also play a role in other mental disorders and somatic diseases. In the final section of the article, the studies performed so far on the molecular-genetic determinants of temperament dimensions, measured by the TEMPS-A are presented.