Are suicide risk factors gender specific?
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Zakład Genetyki w Psychiatrii, Katedra Psychiatrii, Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
Katedra Informatyki i Statystyki, Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
Pracownia Badań Molekularnych i Komórkowych, Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych, Katedra Psychiatrii, Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
Joanna Maria Pawlak   

Zakład Genetyki w Psychiatrii, Uniwersytet Medyczny im. K Marcinkowskiego, ul. Szpitalna 27/33, 60-572 Poznań, Polska
Submission date: 2017-07-03
Final revision date: 2017-09-10
Acceptance date: 2017-10-23
Online publication date: 2018-02-28
Publication date: 2018-02-28
Psychiatr Pol 2018;52(1):21–32
Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. In this study we tested 20 factors described in the literature (sociodemographic and clinical factors as well as family burden) in association with suicidal behavior and we analyzed whether the significance of those factors differs between males and females.

In the study we included patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 249) and bipolar affective disorder (BP; n = 582). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID I), the Operational Criteria Diagnostic Checklist (OPCRIT) and a questionnaire of family history were used.

In the study population we observed an association between suicidal attempts and the following factors: family history of psychiatric disorders, affective disorders and psychoactive substance abuse/dependence; family history of attempted/completed suicide; occurrence of specific symptoms in the course of depressive episode (inappropriate guilt, sense of worthlessness, early morning awakening); and psychotic symptoms. Having children was also associated with suicide attempts. The risk factors of suicide attempt differ between males and females. The age of onset of MDD and coexistence of substance abuse/dependence with affective disorder were significant for lifetime risk of attempted suicide only in female group. Having children was associated with suicide attempts in the whole group and in the male subgroup, but not in the female subgroup.

Suicide attempts are significantly associated with 10 out of 20 analyzed clinical factors in our group of affective patients, however, the significance (or lack of it) of these factors differed in female and male groups in half the cases.