Characteristic of neuropsychological deficits in patients diagnosed with manganese encephalopathy due to ephedrone use – case series analysis
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Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Klinika Psychiatrii Dzieci i Młodzieży
Submission date: 2018-03-18
Final revision date: 2018-09-30
Acceptance date: 2019-03-06
Online publication date: 2020-04-30
Publication date: 2020-04-30
Corresponding author
Agnieszka Kałwa   

Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii
Psychiatr Pol 2020;54(2):359-380
The study presents neuropsychological characteristic of 16 individuals with manganese-induced parkinsonism due to intravenous ephedrone use.

Material and Methods:
Overall cognitive function screening as well as full examination of various cognitive domains (verbal learning, visual memory, working memory, executive functions, construction and visuospatial functions) with the use of elastic neuropsychological test battery were performed. Dyshartric speech disorders were also precisely evaluated. Additionally, all individuals filled in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is used to assess mood.

All patients had evident dysarthric speech disorders accompanied with palilalia and writing disorders (micrographia) in the majority of investigated individuals. Neuropsychological screening diagnosis showed no overall cognitive deficits at the level of dementia. Mild decrease in verbal learning and visual memory processes was found; as well as ideomotor but no construction praxis disorders. Results of working memory and executive function assessment indicated decrease in cognitive flexibility and logical conceptualization abilities, as well as set-shifting disorders. Patients varied significantly in their severity of executive dysfunction. Duration of ephedrone use was found nonsignificant for patients’ cognition. The mean BDI score indicated moderate depression. Higher level of depressive symptoms was associated with poorer overall cognitive screening, decrease of visual and verbal learning as well as phonemic verbal fluency.

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