Depression and smoking – widespread health problems among 14-year-old adolescents in Poland. The results of the SOPKARD-Junior survey
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Gdańskie Centrum Zdrowia, Dzienny Oddział Psychiatryczny dla Dzieci i Młodzieży
Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny, Zakład Prewencji i Dydaktyki
Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny, Zakład Technik Dentystycznych i Zaburzeń Czynnościowych Narządu Żucia
Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Klinika Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego
Submission date: 2019-03-05
Final revision date: 2019-06-30
Acceptance date: 2019-07-24
Online publication date: 2021-02-28
Publication date: 2021-02-28
Corresponding author
Anna Pakalska-Korcala   

Gdańskie Centrum Zdrowia
Psychiatr Pol 2021;55(1):113-125
Assessment of prevalence and co-prevalence of depression and substance abuse among Sopot youth.

In the years 2006–2007, 316 subjects participated in a psychological examination as part of the SOPKARD-Junior program. The assessment was made using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Krakow Depression Inventory and a proprietary questionnaire evaluating the frequency of psychoactive substance use. Adolescents with depressive symptoms in the questionnaire study underwent a psychiatric examination. The SOPKARD-Junior program is a multidisciplinary epidemiologic study that comprehensively assesses the health of the population of 14-year-old junior secondary school students in Sopot.

Symptoms of depression were detected in 29.4% of subjects: 37.4% of girls (G) and 20.9% of boys (B) (p < 0.05). In the psychiatric examination, an episode of depression was diagnosed in 4.1% of students (G: 5.5%; B: 2.6%). The rates of substance use (occasional or regular) were: cigarettes – 20.2 % of students (G: 24% and B: 16.4%; p < 0.05), alcohol – 45.9% (G: 50.9% and B: 40.5%; p < 0.05), and illicit drugs – 6.3% (G: 6.2% and B: 6.6%; n.s.). Teenagers with depressive symptoms smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol significantly more often than those without depressive symptoms (smoking rates:30.1% vs. 16.1%; p <0.05; alcohol drinking rates: 61.3% vs. 39.5%; p < 0.05).

(1) Significant prevalence of depressive symptoms was detected among the adolescents in the study. (2) Girls smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol significantly more frequently than boys. (3) The occurrence of depressive symptoms in adolescents almost doubles the risk of tobacco and alcohol use.

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