Theory of drives and emotions – from Sigmund Freud to Jaak Panksepp
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Katedra Psychologii Klinicznej, Instytut Psychologii, Wydział Filozofii Chrześcijańskiej, Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego
Cezary Żechowski   

Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, ul. Magnolii 8 m. 2, 05-509 Józefosław, Polska
Submission date: 2014-10-07
Final revision date: 2016-02-09
Acceptance date: 2016-02-14
Online publication date: 2017-12-30
Publication date: 2017-12-30
Psychiatr Pol 2017;51(6):1181–1189
The article discusses the development of psychoanalytic theory in the direction of broadening the reflection on their own based on data derived from empirical studies other than clinical case study. Particularly noteworthy is the convergence that followed between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and the rise of the so-called neuropsychoanalysis. Consequently, this led to eject empirical hypotheses and begin research on defense mechanisms, self, memory, dreams, empathy, dynamic unconscious and emotional-motivational processes (theory of drives). Currently neuropsychoanalysis constituted itself as a discipline contained in itself three separate areas: the psychodynamic neuroscience, clinical neuropsychoanalysis and theory building. The article introduces the theory of Jaak Panksepp emotional systems as an example of anintegrated neurobiology of affect, behavioral biology, evolutionary psychology and psychoanalysis. The theory of emotional systems includes the description of the SEEKING system representing basic motivational system of the organism. Apart from a new perspective on the theory of drives described by Sigmund Freud, it offers the possibility to take into account the emotional and motivational systems within the understanding of mental disorders such as depression, addiction and psychosis, which is the core of psychoanalytic thinking.