The influence of parents personality and DRD4 and 5HTT genes polymorphisms on predisposition to alcohol dependence in their sons
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Psychiatr Pol 2011;45(3):337–347
Aim. The aim of this work was to investigate differences in parents' personality and dopaminergic and serotoninergic gene polymorphisms which may affect certain predispositions to alcohol dependence as described in the typology developed by R. Cloninger and O.M. Lesch. Also the possibility of recognising their genotypes DRD4 (Gene ID: 1815A) and 5HTT (Gene ID: 6532) could be helpful in predicting predisposition to addiction. Methods. A total number of 213 individuals (71 Polish trios), Caucasian families were investigated. Fathers' mean age was: 61.7 +/- 10.8 and mothers were 59 +/- 10 years old. None of the parents fulfilled the criteria of alcohol dependence. The alcohol dependent probands were male, with confirmed biological descent, mean age: 35.2 +/- 9.7 years. In all the participants TCI was performed. Characterisation of alcohol dependence and the course of withdrawal were obtained by SSAGA. Specially designed questionnaires based on Cloninger and Lesch typologies were used. The essential data on both parents was collected and AUDIT was performed. DRD4 and 5HTT gene polymorphism were determined by PCR and TDT test was calculated. Results. TDT analysis showed no differences in the transmission of alleles of 5HTT and DRD4 genes in the investigated families. The analysis of TCI personality profiles confirmed no statistically significant relations between Cloninger 1 and 2 subtypes of alcoholics. A statistically significant difference was recorded between the scores for groups I and II classified according to Lesch's typology in dimensions NS, NS2 and NS4. Fathers of probands characterised as type I according to Cloninger had statistically lower scores in dimension C and C5 in comparison to type II fathers. Fathers of type II alcoholics according to Lesch's typology had higher NS2. Mothers of type I alcoholics according to Cloninger had statistically lower scores in dimension HA2 in comparison with type II mothers. Conclusions. On the basis of the above presented findings it can be stated that there might be specific interactions between personality traits in alcohol dependent probands and their parents. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to establish whether this relationship may have a predictive value, which may implicate therapeutic implications, as proposed by the clinical algorithm of O.M. Lesch.