Psychogenic tics: clinical characteristics and prevalence.
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Katedra i Klinika Neurologii, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny
Submission date: 2013-12-30
Final revision date: 2014-02-14
Acceptance date: 2014-02-17
Publication date: 2014-08-20
Corresponding author
Piotr Stanisław Janik   

Katedra i Klinika Neurologii, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Banacha 1a, 02-097 Warszawa, Polska
Psychiatr Pol 2014;48(4):835-845
Clinical characteristics and the prevalence of psychogenic tics (PT)

268 consecutively examined patients aged 4 to 54 years (221 men, 47 females; 134 children, 134 adults) with tic phenotype: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS, n = 255), chronic motor tics (n = 6), chronic vocal tics (n = 1), transient tics (n = 1), tics unclassified (n = 2), PT (n = 5) were analyzed. The diagnosis of tic disorders was made on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and mental disorders by psychiatrists.

PT were found in 5 patients (1.9%), aged 17 to 51 years, four men and one woman. The phenotype included vocalizations and complex movements. In none of the patients simple motor facial tics, inability to tic suppress, unchanging clinical pattern, peak severity from the beginning of the disease, lack of concern about the disease were present. The absence of premonitory urges, regression in unexpected positions, and the presence of atypical for GTS mental disorders were found in two persons. PT occurred in three persons in whom organic tics were present in childhood. Pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were unsuccessful. In two persons spontaneous resolution occurred, in two patients the tics persist, in one person the course of PT is unknown.

PT are rare and may occur in patients with organic tics. The most typical features of PT are: early onset in adulthood, lack of simple motor tics, inability to tic suppress. The diagnosis is established if a few atypical symptoms for organic tics occur.

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