Temperament and attachment dimensions as predictors for impairments of personality functioning according to DSM-5
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Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
University Research Priority Program Social Networks, University of Zurich
Submission date: 2023-02-11
Final revision date: 2023-05-27
Acceptance date: 2023-06-24
Online publication date: 2023-10-10
Publication date: 2023-10-10
Corresponding author
Jan Cieciuch   

Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw
The study aimed to assess the role of temperament and attachment dimensions for personality pathology defined as impairments in self– and interpersonal functioning according to Criterion A of Section III of the DSM-5.

The study was conducted in Poland with a group of 391 participants. The following measurement instruments were used: The Level of Personality Functioning Scale – Brief Form 2.0 (LPFS-BF 2.0), the Temperament Metadimensions Questionnaire (TMQ), the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and the Experiences in Close Relationships – Revised (ECR-R).

The joint estimation of temperament and attachment role in explaining impairments of personality functioning led to the following conclusions: (1) temperament explained impairments of self-functioning to a greater extent than impairments of interpersonal functioning; (2) temperamental “Reactivity” was more of a predictor of personality pathology than “Activity”; (3) adding attachment increased the magnitude of the explained variance of personality pathology; (4) attachment “Avoidance” explained impairments in interpersonal functioning to a greater extent, while attachment “Anxiety” explained impairments in selffunctioning to a greater extent

The impairments in personality functioning included in DSM-5 Criterion A are largely explained by two sets of variables: the more enduring and innate temperament and the attachment acquired through early interactions. Such a distinction is important from a clinical perspective, in which effective interactions can target those properties that can be modified and take into account those that are difficult or impossible to modify.