Attachment in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder
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Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Klinika Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego
Submission date: 2020-07-21
Final revision date: 2020-11-11
Acceptance date: 2020-11-11
Online publication date: 2022-06-30
Publication date: 2022-06-30
Corresponding author
Anna Kaźmierczak-Mytkowska   

Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Klinika Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego
Psychiatr Pol 2022;56(3):535-549
To assess attachment styles among adolescents (13–16 years) with ADHD or ADHD and oppositional defiant disorders (ODD).

The Parents and Peers Attachment (IPPA) and the Parent Bonding Questionnaire (PBI) were used in three groups of teenagers raised in biological families: (1) ADHD/ODD group (n = 40), (2) ADHD group (n = 40) and (3) K (control) group of teenagers (n = 40) who have not benefited from psychological or psychiatric care in the past or at present.

Parental attachment styles in the area of “Trust”, “Communication” and “Alienation” (IPPA), and “Care” and “Control” (PBI) in the ADHD/ODD group differ significantly compared to the control group. Teens from the ADHD/ODD group report to have experienced significantly less “Trust” and “Communication” (IPPA), and “Care” (PBI) in relationships with parents and more “Alienation” (IPPA) and “Control” (PBI) than adolescents in the ADHD group. Attachment patterns with peers in both clinical and control groups differ significantly. The ADHD/ODD group is dominated by the anxious-avoidant style of attachment to the mother and father, in the ADHD group, a secure style in relation to the mother and anxious-avoidant in relation to the father. In relations with peers in the ADHD/ODD group and the ADHD group, the anxious-avoidant style dominates.

The attachment style is significantly different in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and ODD than in adolescents with only ADHD. In the ADHD/ODD group and the ADHD group, unlike in the group of adolescents without a psychiatric diagnosis, insecure attachment styles for parents and peers dominate (mainly anxious-avoidant style).

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